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       Apollo: Columbia & Eagle
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Kit features:
Model height: 180 mm
Display stand and base board with moonscape
Detailed command module with one astronaut
Detailed service module with thrust and control nozzles
"Eagle" lunar module with filigree landing frame
Gold foil for coating the lunar module
Top stage of lunar module with antennae and control nozzles


The Apollo spacecraft was designed as part of the Apollo Program, by the United States in the early 1960s to land men on the moon before 1970 and return them safely to earth. This goal was set forth by President Kennedy after the first flight of the Mercury Space Program. The spacecraft was made up of multiple units or stages that worked together to perform the mission of landing on the moon and returning safely to earth. The main components of the Apollo spacecraft were (going from top to bottom) the launch escape system, the Command Module, the Service Module, the Lunar Module and the lunar module adapter. These stages together would sit atop the launch vehicle.

The principle was Lunar Orbit Rendezvous: A rocket would launch the spacecraft to the moon. The spacecraft would fly to the moon and orbit it. A smaller portion of the spacecraft would land on the moon and return to lunar orbit. Then a portion of the spacecraft would return to earth.

Apollo Command/Service Module
The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. It was one of the two spacecraft that were utilized for the Apollo program, along with the Lunar Module, to land astronauts on the Moon. Together they were called the Apollo spacecraft. After the conclusion of the Apollo program, the CSM saw service as a ferry for the Skylab program and for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project where a CSM rendezvoused in orbit with a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft.

The spacecraft, as its name suggests, consisted of two segments, the command module (reentry capsule) which housed the crew and the equipment needed for re-entry and splashdown, and a service module that provided propulsion, electrical power and storage for various consumables required during a mission. The service module would be cast off and allowed to burn up in the atmosphere before the command module re-entered and brought the crew home.

Command Module (CM)
The Command Module was a truncated cone measuring 10 feet 7 inches (3.2 m) tall and having a diameter of 12 feet 10 inches (3.9 m) across the base. The forward compartment contained two reaction control engines, the docking tunnel, and the components of the Earth Landing System. The inner pressure vessel housed the crew accommodations, equipment bays, controls and displays, and many spacecraft systems. The last section, the aft compartment, contained 10 reaction control engines and their related propellant tanks, fresh water tanks, and the CSM umbilical cables.

The command module's inner structure was an aluminum "sandwich" consisting of a welded aluminum inner skin, a thermally bonded honeycomb core, and a thin aluminum "face sheet". The central heat shield consisted of 40 individual panels interspersed with several holes and openings for the reaction control engines and after-compartment equipment access. The central compartment structure consisted of an inner aluminum face sheet with a steel honeycomb core, a glass-phenolic ablative honeycomb heat shield, a layer of q-felt fibrous insulation, a pore seal, a moisture barrier, and a layer of aluminized PET film thermal strips.

The aft heat shield consisted of four brazed honeycomb panels, four spot-welded sheet metal fairings, and a circumferential ring. The fairing segments were attached to the honeycomb panels and ring with conventional fasteners. The steel honeycomb core and outer face sheets were then thermally bonded to the inner skin in a giant autoclave. The aft heat shield is nearly identical to the central, with the exception of the outer alluminized PET film layer.

Service Module (SM)
The Service Module was an unpressurized cylindrical structure, measuring 24 feet 7 inches (7.5 m) long and 12 feet 10 inches (3.9 m) in diameter. It housed the service propulsion system and its propellants, the fuel cell power system, four maneuvering thruster quads, the S-band antenna for communication with Mission Control, and storage tanks for water and air. On Apollo 15, 16 and 17 it also carried a scientific instrument package. It was connected to the Command module using three tension ties and six compression pads. The tension ties were stainless steel straps bolted to the CM's aft heat shield.

The 91.2 kN Service Propulsion System (SPS) was used to place the Apollo spacecraft into and out of lunar orbit, and for mid-course corrections between the Earth and Moon. The SPS used a single AJ10-137 engine.

The Service module remained attached to the Command Module throughout the mission. It was jettisoned just prior to re-entry into the earth's atmosphere.

The Service Module was a simple structure consisting of a center section and six pie-shaped sectors. The basic components were the forward bulkhead and fairing, six radial beams, four honeycomb panels, and the aft bulkhead and heat shield.

The forward fairing measured 2 feet 10 inches (864 mm) long and included the RCS computer, umbilical connection, power distribution block, ECS controller, separation controller, and components for the high-gain antenna. The umbilical housing contained the main electrical and plumbing connections from the SM. At SM jettison, the connections were cut using a pyrotechnic-activated guillotine assembly.

Four clusters of reaction control jets were installed around the upper section of the SM every 90 degrees. Each thruster generated approximately 445 N of thrust, and used MMH for fuel and N204 as oxidizer. Each quad assembly measures 8 by 3 feet (2.4 by 0.9 m) and has a single fuel tank, an oxidizer tank, and its associated valves and regulators.

The central tunnel housed the service propulsion engine and its two helium pressurant tanks. The engine used Aerozine 50 (hydrazine/UDMH) fuel and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and had a maximum thrust of 20,500 lbf (91.2 kN). It is 152.82 inches (3.882 m) long and 98.48 inches (2.501 m) wide at the base.
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